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FIGHTING!!

 
 
 

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Fighting before G  

2009-03-16 08:44:14|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The text listed below is the final material all of which i should remember before G. Perhaps it will be useful for some other people. And wish me be a good luck.

 

ARGUMENT SECTION

In this argument, the author concludes that…..

To substantiate his conclusion, he points out that….

In addition, he indicates that….

Furthermore, he cites….. as a typical example in support of his recommendation

At the first glance, the argument appears to be somewhat convincing, but further reflection reveals that it omits some substantial concerns that should be addressed in this argument. From the logical perspectives, this argument suffers from several flaws.

However, these alone do not constitute a logical argument in favor of its conclusion and fail to provide convincing support make this argument sound and invulnerable.

 

Firstly, the assumption is unwarranted. Merely based on unsubstantiated and dubious assumption, the author falsely claims that….. In this argument, there are several unconvincing assumptions, of which the author can not prove the correctness. They are: (1) the effectiveness of the survey is credible. (2)….. Yet it is not that case. One result does not suffice to support a large conclusion, as the author does. The author does not provide enough information to prove the validity of all these assumptions. Furthermore,  Maybe…, or perhaps…… Unless the author can rule out those and other alternatives that will completely weaken this argument, he can not, without any thought, go on reasoning and justifiably come to the following conclusion.

时间外推,错误类比,写在assumption内

Secondly, the evidence is doubtable and questionable. Even if the effectiveness of the survey is convincing, in other words, the result of the survey can attest whether the conclusion is right or wrong. However, the author fails to provide details about the survey and leaves us lots of questions, for example, how the survey was conducted? How many people were involved in this survey? How many people were surveyed but not respond? Whether the samples of the survey are reliable...All of those above absolutely will decrease the confidence for this argument….

 

Moreover, the author claims that A is completely profitable. But the truth is not as easy as he says. Profit is a complicated factor that can be influenced not only by the revenue but also the cost and expense. It is possible that the cost of materials and the high expense of management and marketing will offset or outweigh the revenue. Besides, a myriad of other unexpected occurrences, such as unfavorable economic depression, might prevent the enterprise from being as profitable as the argument predicts. What’s more, the author fails to provide any information in support of the profitable fact, so that the argument is insufficient to come to that arbitrary conclusion.

 

Finally, the conclusion is arbitrary. Maybe the conclusion is too vague to be reliable. Admittedly, the reasoning is correct and convincing, but the author should not have made that presumptuous conclusion that…. There are many other subsequences that may be happen in this case. For example … Therefore, the conclusion does not make sense for me until the author succeed to rule out other alternative conclusion.

 

To sum up, the argument fails to substantiate the conclusion that… because of the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the arguer claims. To make the argument more convincing, the author should provide more information with regard to…. Additionally, he would have to demonstrate that… Therefore, if the arguer had included the given factors discussed above, the argument should have been more thorough and logically acceptable.

 

The arguer assumes too hastily that A will necessarily result in the behavior that the arguer predicts. Perhaps… Moreover,

 

The author’s recommendation depends on the assumption that no factors other than A cause B. However, common sense informs me that this assumption is a poor one. A myriad of other factors, including C or D, might be the cause of B. To be specific,   Without ruling out these and other possible causes, the editor can not justifiably conclude that only by

 

The author fails to account for other possible causes of B. B might have been due to C,D.  Without ruling out these and other alternative explanations for B, the author can not reasonably infer that trend

 

The argument rests on the assumption that 个别案例 typify nationwide 整体情况. If this is not the case, then it is entirely possible that 在另一个地方,上述个案的结果不会发生相同的情况. Thus, lacking more marketing information about…nationwide, it is difficult to assess the merit of the memo’s recommendation.

 

One problem with the argument is that it assumes that the nationwide statistics about… applies equally to … Yet this might not be the case, for a variety of possible reasons. Perhaps … or perhaps … Without ruling out such possibilities, the author can not justifiably conclude that…

 

The arguer’s recommendation relies on what might be a poor analogy between A and B. The analogy falsely depends on the assumption that … in both A and B are similar. However, it is entirely possible that A is quite different from B in many aspects. In short, without accounting for such possible differences between A and B, the arguer can not prove that B will reap the similar benefits from the proposal method.

 

More than  Not but  Either or  Neither nor  So that   As long as 

Only 的倒装   As well as   Nevertheless  Given考虑到   In respect that考虑到

结果:as a consequence, therefore, thus, consequently,

 

ISSUE SECTION

“?”In response to this issue, we need to analyze the proposition comprehensively from dialectic perspective, investigating the nature of the truth by critical analysis of concepts and hypothesis. The author declares that  ,however, it oversimplifies this issue. The final judgment, in my opinion, should depend on a case-by-case analysis.

第一段

First and foremost, at the risk of sounding too simplistic, my main proposition for this issue can be summarized in one saying that …

With … Without ….

What’s more, I approve the statement that … without reservation, in respect that …

As a consequence, in this era when we humans need … to urge ourselves to facilitate or boost the development of …

…has been regarded as a necessity for…

Let’s bring our discussion here to a more present and practical context, it can be given a concrete example: …

第二段:

From the analytical perspective, another essential factor why I advocate … involves both the realm of… and the realm of …

In the realm of ... ,

In the realm of …

It has taken a lone time to convince the public that …

Moving on to wider themes,…

As a complex matter, the statement requires qualification in two respects. Firstly, …\ Secondly, ..

History is replete with evidence to demonstrate this point.

A notable case in point has an association with…

Meanwhile, a recent survey will make this point dear:

By the same taken,

第三段

However, we should concede that despite the merits of ... mentioned above, overextended…will be indeed harmful.

The harm it produces is , in my point of view, both palpable and profound.

For the individual, it has a debasing impact on

For the society, it may promote the tendency toward

第四段:

To successfully curb such unfavorable blights, it is imperative for us to take several efficacious steps into consideration in due course(及时).

At he community level, we should appeal to the authority to work out relevant regulations to ..

At the personal level, we should cultivate and enhance people’s awareness that …

At the financial level, … should pour more investment into …

Consequently, it is such belief in a brighter future that gives us such inspiration and optimism.

结尾段

From the analysis made above, I strongly commit to the notion that we need to call for a balance between A and B.

Without A, … Without B,… In a word, this complex issue depends on …

竞争的好处:

The structure of the American economic system is based on the belief that, generally, competition is the best regulator of the marketplace.

According to this theory, when many companies are selling a product, the effort of each to attract more customers keeps price at the lowest level that allows business to cover costs and make a fair profit.

When a market is not competitive, sellers can set the price as high as they wish, up to the level where consumers simply will not buy the product.

To preserve competition in the marketplace, federal laws make it illegal for business to monopolize an industry, restrain trade, or fix prices.

 The Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Department of Justice share the responsibility for enforcing these laws.

质疑的概念段落:

In fact, if we abstract the words “contradictive opinions”, we will understand that they give expression to a critical concept—skepticism. Skepticism refers to the philosophic position holding that the possibility of knowledge is limited either because of the limitations of the mind or because of the inaccessibility of its object. It is more loosely used to denote any questioning attitude. It is important for healthy skepticism to keep our minds open to new ideas. If there were no one in the world to doubt, then we will still believe the world is flat and science would exist.

质疑的例子

William Harvey, English physician, who discovered the circulation of blood and the role of the heart in propelling it, thus refuting the theories of Galen and laying the foundation for modern physiology. Harvey subjected him to severe criticism by some contemporaries, but this was more than compensated for by the later widespread recognition of his contribution.

Mark Twain, “We like the man to come right out and say what they think, if we agree with him.”

 

个别名人:

Waston and Click  DNA double helix model  protein molecular biology

Democratic, honest, efficient, responsible  Accountability, efficiency, higher quality decision

Well-being: the state of happy, healthy, or prosperous

创新

The term innovation refers to both radical and incremental changes to products, processes or services. The unspoken goal of innovation is solving a problem. Innovation is an important topic in many kinds of fields, such as economic, politics, education, business, technology, sociology and engineering. Since innovation is also considered to be a major drive of the economy, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers.

However, the author overlooks certain problems unique to today’s world, which are more complex and complicated and even challenging than the past. Advances in technology and science determine the complexity of the problems with which people are confronted. Our predecessors needed only to consider where to hunt animals, how to efficiently hunt them, what weapons to use and other similar questions. However, people presently have to consider the morality of human cloning, control of nuclear weapon, the elimination of biochemical weapons and endless other problems which are in essence more complicated than those problems faced by our predecessors.

 

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